Mental & Behavioural Disorders...
Mental disorders refer to psychological or physiological patterns that occur in an individual and are usually associated with distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture. The recognition and understanding of mental disorders has changed over time. Definitions, assessments, and classifications of mental disorders can vary, but guideline criterion listed in the ICD, is widely accepted by mental health professionals. Categories of diagnoses in these schemes may include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, eating disorders, developmental disorders, personality disorders, and many other categories. In many cases, there is no single accepted or consistent cause of mental disorders, although they are widely understood in terms of a diathesis-stress model and biopsychosocial model.
Mental disorders have been found to be common, with over a third of people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria at some point in their life. Mental health services may be based in hospitals or in the community. Mental health professionals diagnose individuals using different methodologies, often relying on case history and interview. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options, as well as supportive interventions.
Behavioral disorders refer to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. Behavior can be conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. In people, behavior is controlled by the endocrine system and the nervous system. The complexity of the behavior of a person is related to the complexity of her/his nervous system. Human behavior (and that of other organisms and mechanisms) can be common, unusual, acceptable, or unacceptable. Humans evaluate the acceptability of behavior using social norms and regulate behavior by means of social control. In sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action.
A partial list of the various diseases under this category are listed as follows:
Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders: Dementia in Alzheimer's disease; Vascular dementia; Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere; Unspecified dementia; Organic amnesic syndrome, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances; Delirium, not induced by alcohol and other psychoactive substances; Organic hallucinosis; Organic catatonic disorder; Organic delusional [schizophrenia-like] disorder; Organic anxiety disorder; Personality and behavioural disorders due to brain disease, damage and dysfunction; etc.
Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use: Acute intoxication; Dependence syndrome; Withdrawal state with delirium; Amnesic syndrome; Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of alcohol; Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of opioids; Mental and behavioural disorders due to multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances; etc.
Schizophrenia: The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time. The most important psychopathological phenomena include thought echo; thought insertion or withdrawal; thought broadcasting; delusional perception and delusions of control; influence or passivity; hallucinatory voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person; thought disorders and negative symptoms.
Mood disorders: This block contains disorders in which the fundamental disturbance is a change in affect or mood to depression (with or without associated anxiety) or to elation. The mood change is usually accompanied by a change in the overall level of activity; most of the other symptoms are either secondary to, or easily understood in the context of, the change in mood and activity. Most of these disorders tend to be recurrent and the onset of individual episodes can often be related to stressful events or situations.
Neurotic disorders: Phobic anxiety disorders; Agoraphobia; Social phobias; Anxiety disorders; Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders; etc.
Disorders of adult personality behaviour.
Disorders of Psychological development.
Emotional disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence.
As always, the articles in this category, along with the comments thereon and other elements, are intended to inform as well as generate interest in and interaction between individuals, their family, and/or support team.
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A comprehensive list of mental and behavioural diseases may be found at ICD-10 Chapter 5 Block F00-F99.
Anyone seeking additional information or help on mental health should visit Mental Health America. ~